By Paul Frymer

In the Nineteen Thirties, fewer than one in a single hundred U.S. hard work union individuals have been African American. by way of 1980, the determine was once multiple in 5. Black and Blue explores the politics and background that resulted in this dramatic integration of geared up exertions. within the technique, the publication tells a broader tale approximately how the Democratic occasion by chance sowed the seeds of labor's decline.

The exertions and civil rights hobbies are the cornerstones of the Democratic occasion, yet for far of the 20th century those routine labored independently of each other. Paul Frymer argues that as Democrats handed separate laws to advertise exertions rights and racial equality they cut up the problems of sophistication and race into units of associations, neither of which had sufficient authority to combine the exertions movement.

From this department, the courts grew to become the top enforcers of place of work civil rights, threatening unions with financial ruin in the event that they resisted integration. The courts' formerly unappreciated strength, notwithstanding, was once additionally an issue: in diversifying unions, judges and legal professionals enfeebled them financially, therefore democratizing via destruction. Sharply delineating the double-edged sword of country and criminal energy, Black and Blue chronicles an fulfillment that used to be as challenging because it used to be awesome, and that demonstrates the deficiencies of race- and class-based understandings of work, equality, and gear in America.

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Black and Blue: African Americans, the Labor Movement, and the Decline of the Democratic Party (Princeton Studies in American Politics: Historical, International, and Comparative Perspectives) by Paul Frymer


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